HealTourkey - Oncology (Cancer)
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Oncology (Cancer)
In any period of life in the body and for any reason, cells in tissues and organs can multiply indefinitely by not complying with the biological rules they must comply with. The mass or group of abnormal cells containing these characteristics is called a tumor (benign mass) or neoplasm-cancer (malignant mass). Cancer refers to more malignant (malignant) tumors.
Cancer has become an important health problem with an increasing frequency both in the world and in Turkey. It ranks second among life-threatening diseases after cardiovascular diseases. The most common cancers in women; cancers of the breast, thyroid, intestine, uterus, and lungs, and in men, lung, prostate, bowel, bladder, and stomach cancers.
Sub-branches of Oncology
Oncology is a branch of science that deals with tumors and cancers in the body. It deals with the formation, causes, heredity, diagnosis, treatment, statistics and prevention of cancer. Oncology; It is subdivided into gynecological, medical, pediatric, radiation and surgical oncology.
Gynecological oncology: Cancers of the uterus, cervix, ovary , vulva and vagina constitute gynecological cancers. The branch of medicine that deals with cancers specific to women is gynecological oncology.
Medical (medical) oncology: Medical oncology physicians are also called medical oncologists, the branch of medicine that deals with the treatment of cancer with drugs. The drugs used are chemotherapy, hormonal treatments, smart drugs and immune therapies. Medical oncology manages cancer prevention, cancer risk, diagnosis, treatment planning and implementation, and supportive treatment processes.
Pediatric oncology: The branch of medicine dealing with childhood cancers is called pediatric oncology. Cancers that are frequently seen in childhood are leukemia, central nervous system tumors, lymphoma, soft tissue sarcomas, sympathetic nervous system tumors ( neuroblastoma ), kidney cancer, bone cancer, sex ( germ ) cell cancers and tumors in the retina of the eye ( retinoblastoma ).
Radiation oncology: Radiotherapy; It is called the treatment of benign or malignant tumors with radiation. Radiotherapy has two main purposes, either to stop the growth of cancer cells in the treated area or to kill those cells.
Surgical oncology: Surgical oncology is the process of removing the tumor without disturbing its integrity and with some normal healthy tissue around it. In general, the lymph nodes closest to the cancer are removed during this procedure due to the risk of spatter.
Diagnosis in Oncology
For diagnostic purposes; imaging modalities such as blood tests, X-ray, CT, MRI, nuclear scintigraphy, endoscopy and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanning are used. For a definitive diagnosis, a sample is taken from the tumor cells (biopsy).
Treatment in Oncology
Cancers treated in medical oncology;
  • Lung cancers
  • Lung cancer (mesothelioma)
  • Head and neck cancers
  • Brain cancers
  • Kidney cancers
  • Adrenal gland cancers
  • Endometrial cancers
  • Small bowel cancers
  • Female reproductive organs cancers
  • Liver and biliary tract cancers
  • Colon-rectum cancers
  • Breast cancers
  • Bladder cancers
  • Stomach cancers
  • Neuroendocrine cancers
  • Pancreatic cancers
  • Prostate cancers
  • Cervical cancers
  • Testicular cancers
  • Thyroid cancers
  • Urogenital cancers
  • Esophageal cancers
  • Soft tissue and bone cancers