HealTourkey - Eye Diseases and Treatments
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Eye Diseases and Treatments
Anatomy of the eye
Eyelash; It is a spherical organ with an average diameter of 2.5 cm consisting of three layers;
  • Outer layer ( tunica fibrosa bulbi ): It has cornea and sclera .
  • middle layer ( tunica vasculosa bulbi ): It has iris, corpus ciliary and choroid .
  • Inner layer ( tunica interna bulbi ): There is sensory retina, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).

In the middle of the outer layer of the sphere, there is a glass-like layer called the cornea . sclera around the cornea There is a white layer called A two-layered transparent and slimy membrane called the conjunctiva surrounds the sclera . At the front of the middle layer of the sphere is the iris , which gives its color to the eye , and the ciliary body ( corpus ) in the middle . ciliare ) and at the very back is the vascular layer called the choroid , which provides nutrition to most of the eye . In the innermost layer of the sphere, the retina , which forms the beginning of vision, is the retina . has.
Between the cornea and the iris, there is a 2.5 mm deep anterior chamber filled with a transparent liquid. There is a transparent liquid-filled posterior chamber between the iris and the lens (intraocular lens). The transparent vitreous part behind the lens fills ¾ of the eye and gives shape to the eyeball. At the back is the optic nerve head, which transmits vision from the retina to the brain.
Duties of Formations in the Eye
Cornea: It is the convex veinless layer at the front of the outer layer of the eye. It is approximately ½ mm thick and 12 mm in diameter. It plays an important role in refracting the rays coming into the eye to create a clear image on the retina. If the cornea refracts the light coming into the eye too much, it causes myopia, less refraction causes hyperopia, and if it does not refract it equally in all directions, it causes refractive errors called astigmatism.
Iris: It is the vascular layer in the middle layer of the eye that gives the eye its color. It allows the pupil to grow and shrink (accommodation) by the contraction and relaxation of the muscles it has. While the pupil shrinks in a bright environment, it expands in a dark environment. Thus, the light rays coming into the eye are balanced.
Lens: It is a transparent veinless structure with a diameter of 9 mm and a thickness of 5 mm behind the iris layer of the eye. It is the second layer after the cornea that refracts the rays entering the eye. However, unlike the cornea, it has both light refraction and flexibility. Since this feature provides the lens with a focusing (zoom) feature, it gives the opportunity to see objects clearly at any distance, regardless of distance or close.
Retina: Located in the inner layer of the eye, the retina is the nerve layer that covers the inner wall of the eye. The image formed by the focusing of the light rays entering the eye on the retina layer is converted into electrical signals and transmitted to the optic nerve, and is sent to the brain from the optic nerve.
Eyelids: It is the part that protects the eye against harmful factors from the external environment. The muscles in the structure of the eyelids continuously provide periodic movement of the eyelid with the blink reflex. This wipe-like movement of the eyelids spreads the fluid secreted from the lacrimal gland to the layers in the front of the eye, thus ensuring continuous cleaning of the eye on the one hand, and preventing the eye from drying out on the other.
Eye diseases
Eyes are extremely important sense organs for humans. However, aging with genetic and some environmental factors causes disorders in different parts of the eye. Depending on the location and degree of this eye disorder, the ability to see may be partially or completely lost. Some of the diseases seen in the eyes are as follows;
  • Glaucoma (eye pressure)
  • Cataract (loss of transparency of the lens)
  • Strabismus (strabismus)
  • Refractive errors (refraction disorders)
  • Age-related macular degeneration (yellow spot disease)
  • Age-related retinal degeneration
  • Eye problems due to autoimmune diseases
  • Eye infections
  • Eyelid problems
  • Keratoconus (cornea tapering forward, impairing vision)

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